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  1. Assessing Informal Reasoning in Culturally Diverse Students
  2. Assessing Informal Reasoning in Culturally Diverse Students - Schoolhouse Educational Services
  3. Joint assessment of formal and informal reasoning: What can computer-based testing offer?
  4. Assessing Informal Reasoning in Culturally Diverse Students
  5. Library Catalogue

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Your Name Optional :. The results also suggest that in order for groups similar to those sampled to achieve more balanced scores, tools specific to measuring informal reasoning may be necessary. Assessing a student with current standardized tests carries the risk of assigning ineffective special education remedies for a student who is an informal reasoner.

A student who has dominant informal reasoning tendencies has the potential to develop formal reasoning and improve academic achievement if that subject is identified early in the education process. To date, there is no method to quantify informal reasoning abilities through use of psychometric tests; therefore, there is no standardized method of identifying an informal reasoner. Neither are there commonly applied intervention methods designed to develop formal reasoning abilities and improve academic achievement.

Lacking both testing and intervention methods specific to students with dominant informal reasoning is a concerning void.

Assessing Informal Reasoning in Culturally Diverse Students

Current research by Carl Romstad, of Designs for Learning, and Milton Dehn, of Schoolhouse Educational Services, has provided new information regarding the analysis and quantification of informal reasoning through an innovative measure of informal reasoning. Additionally, examinees are not required to apply in-depth abstract and conceptual thinking.

The subtests designed and used in the scale require examinees to analyze and replicate designs they observe, demonstrate efficiency in navigation, demonstrate quantitative reasoning, and analyze sets of pictures to find what is missing, solve a presented problem, or create an object.

In its initial piloting phase, the scale produced equivalent scores across Caucasian and NonCaucasian students.

Assessing Informal Reasoning in Culturally Diverse Students - Schoolhouse Educational Services

Overall, the new measure of informal reasoning has, to date, demonstrated cultural, ethnic, and socio-economic fairness for examinees. Equality on these three levels is a rarity in the field of intellectual assessment. Central to these tests is the measure and interpretation of formal reasoning Ferrer, et al. Current research indicates that a standardized measure of informal reasoning is plausible.

Future research on informal reasoning and development of the new scale has the potential to help practitioners measure innate reasoning abilities with a more culturally-fair test. Benjamin, L. The birth of American intelligence testing. American Psychological Association, 40 1.

Formal and Informal Fallacies

Chng, G. Learning, Culture, and Social Interaction, 3 2 , Cole, M. Cross-cultural and historical perspectives on the development consequences of education. Human Development, 48, Deary, I. Intelligence and educational achievement.

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Intelligence, 35 1 , Diamond, J. Guns, germs, and steel: The fates of human societies. Downer, J. School Psychology Review, 35 1 , Ferrer, E. Fluid reasoning and the developing brain. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 3 1 , Flynn, J.

Joint assessment of formal and informal reasoning: What can computer-based testing offer?

Does your family make you smarter? Greenfield, P. The cultural evolution of IQ. Neisser, The rising curve: long-term gains in IQ and related measures pp. Washington, DC. Hvitfeldt, C. Traditional culture, perceptual style, and learning: the classroom behavior of Hmong adults.

This includes inductive reasoning i. Reasoning is also closely related to problem-solving and creativity. Concept formation has always been a central concern of learning theories over the decades.

Assessing Informal Reasoning in Culturally Diverse Students

Furthermore, the principles of stimulus generalization and differentiation account for categorization behaviors. Many theorists from Osgood to Schank have argued that concept learning can be understood on the basis of semantic principles. Research on deductive reasoning has historically focused on the solving of logical or mathematics problems such as syllogisms or series.

Indeed, one of the central questions of this research has been why people are so poor at logical reasoning.

Library Catalogue

For example, it is well established that people have difficulty reaching valid conclusions with negative premises. It has also discovered that people generally perform better with relations that can be visualized, leading to a spatial representation theory for reasoning and eventually, a semantic theory.

Reasoning has also been fertile ground for theories of individual differences. In so far as reasoning problems both inductive and deductive are common on all forms of ability and achievement tests, they form a basis for differentiating individuals. Research also supports the view that people have characteristic ways of reasoning i. Finally, there have been a number of theorists who have attempted to develop a single framework that account for both inductive and deductive processes.